How does an Axial Flow Compressor work?

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A compressor is a mechanical device used to pressurize air or gas. Simply, it uses different methods to raise the gas or air pressure. When the air enters inside the compressor, it has low pressure. But it delivers at very high pressure. This supercharging function of the compressor uses to fill tires or gas cylinders. An axial compressor is a famous type of compressor. In an axial compressor, the working medium moves parallel to the axial direction of the rotating shaft or the rotating rotor. In this compressor, the air or gas first compresses by accelerating the air or gas and then dispersing it to raise the pressure.

axial compressor

These compressors initially allowed the fluid to reach high speeds but later restricted the flow of air. Air pressure increases. In addition to axial compressors, radial compressors and multiphase compressors describe other types of dynamic compressors.

In an axial compressor, the air arrives and discharges the compressor axially. In this compressor, the compression procedure divides into two phases.

  • The flow accelerates as it passes by the vanes or impeller.
  • After that, the flow of acceleration is limited by the stator vanes. During this process, the kinetic energy of the air or gas converts into pressure energy.

This compressor has impeller vanes that are located on the impeller and stator on the housing. The axial flow of air through these alternating stators and impellers increases their ultimate pressure.

Working Principle of Axial Flow Compressor

When air or gas sucks and exits the air compressor in the axial direction, the centrifugal components of the energy equation do not affect it. In this compressor, the compression process is totally dependent on the action of the diffusing channels. The diffusing process within the stator transforms the air’s total kinetic energy into a pressure increase. The relatively moving head of the energy equation is a term that only discharges due to the revolution of the impeller.

The impeller decreases the kinetic energy of the air and converts it to the absolute kinetic energy of the air. In other words, the impeller effect on the air or gas rises the air or gas velocity (absolute value), which in turn decreases the relative velocity between the air and impeller. The impeller adds the absolute velocity of the air, and the stator changes this velocity into pressure and increases the air pressure. In addition to the normal function, the design of an impeller duct with a diffusion function also causes a pressure increase. This leads to a greater increase in pressure in each stage that makes up the impeller and stator.

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